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Guide Eine Wiederentdeckung von Arthur Fischer Bentleys The Process of Government (German Edition)

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The results show a close connection between address forms and the refereeing terms.


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Keshavarz studies address terms in Persian, the choice of address terms is examined in the study in addition to the influence of social contexts, intimacy and distance on this choice. The results indicate that with increasing social distance and formality degree between interlocutors there will be a loss of familiar terms of address. American English. Depending on movies to collect data, the results of the study show that beside the different categories of interpersonal relationships, the intentions of the speakers play an important role in the choice of address terms, both in Chinese and English.

Kubayi investigates the socio-cultural rules that govern address usage in face-to-face encounter in Xitsonga. Semi- structured interviews from 29 participants in Hlanganani region are used as data collection method.

Forms of Address in Mosuli Arabic

The study reveals that person age is the most effective factor in the choice of address terms and Hlanganani is an age-set society. Superior status in address behaviour is given to males in Xitsonga. Women and children are given the same lower status. Alharbi , in a socio-pragmatic approach, analyzes address forms and reference terms in classical Arabic as represented in the Chapter of Joseph in the Holy Quran. The study reveals that the choice Classical Arabic speakers in addressing behaviour is determined by certain sociolinguistic factors namely status, gender and setting.

AL-Qudah studies address terms in Jordanian Arabic. Six major categories of address forms are the focus of the study. The study identifies the most important forms under each category, their social meaning, and the governing factors that control their use. The study reveals that the social meaning of Jordanian terms of address is context- dependent.

Eine Wiederentdeckung von Arthur Fischer Bentleys 'The Process of Government' (German Edition)

For instance, kinship terms are used to address relatives and non- relatives to support positive face. Tecnonyms are found to be greatly embedded in the Jordanian culture as polite terms of address since they are nearly used in all social domains. In the present study, semi-structured interviews are used as adata collection method. The variables of age, gender, material status and level of education are taken into consideration in choosing the 80 participants as the sample of the study.

They arestudents at the Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Mosul at the academic year - The selection of the students takes into account certain aspects:sameage,monolingual speakers of Mosuli Arabic, unmarried, and the same level of education. In the interview, the participants are required to answer a series of planned questions about terms used to address family members See Appendix 1.

Table of contents

In this research, the interpretation of data will be based on two theoretical frameworks, which are the CAT and the power and solidarity of Brown and Gilman. Howard Giles designs CAT to explain the adjustment individuals make to magnify, maintain, or reduce the communicative differences among themselves during social encounters, in other words how and why adjustment occurs and what the social consequences arise from doing so. Over the years, the theory has passed many stages of elaboration and refinement many times.

Converging toward and diverging away from each other is the major accommodative strategies.

This adjustment convergence or divergence can be achieved through linguistic e. Generally, people converge to whom they respect, like or have power by decreasing the social distance between them and their interlocutors while they diverge, underscore or non accommodate to whom they dislike by increasing the social distance between them and their interlocutors. Sometimes, convergence occurs on a certain level and simultaneously divergence occurs on other levels. CAT claims that accommodation occurs by moving towards where others being more communicative rather than to where are objectively Giles , In the same vein, Giles mentions that speakers will over time increasingly accommodate to the communicative patterns they believe characteristic of their interactants, the more they wish affiliate the more they decrease social distance with their interactants on either an individual or group level, or make their message more easily understood Giles, In their study of address terms, Brown and Gilman explore the 2nd person pronoun's usage in French, Italian, Spanish and German.

This study reveals that pronoun usage is governed by two social considerations: power and solidarity. Power refers to authority or the superiority of one person over another. As far as communication is concerned, the speaker may have power over the addressee or vice versa. This is affected by social factors like age, caste, race, and occupation. It is therefore non-reciprocal, in that two people may not have power over each other in the same direction.

A power relationship obtains, for instance, in communication involving a boss and a subordinate member of staff, between a parent and child, and between a teacher and student. Solidarity, by contrast, is inherently reciprocal. It is invoked between equals, people who are close or have a certain level of intimacy. In this relationship, the same pronoun Tu is reciprocally used by two or more interactants Brown and Gilman Data analysis and results interpretation will be according to CAT and the power and solidarity theory.

The results indicate that when addressing fathers As for addressing mother, the results indicate that Within CAT framework, the use of the kinship terms to address fathers or mothers, or the term "hadgija:" is a way of converging upward, while the use of first name or a term of endearment is a way of converging downward. The participants' initial orientation in both contexts is based on a positive history relationship between participants and their fathers or mothers. Norms of interaction specify that the addressee is the father or mother; both have the power over their sons and daughters.

They have seniority and respect. So terms indicating respect must be used. Grundmann, Herbert.

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